Chemical messengers which transmit signals from one neuron to another across synapses. At least 100 unique chemical variants have been identified.
Protein molecules which receive and process neurotransmitters. Having identified bonded with the neurotransmitter, receptors acts as catalysts for cellular responses.
The most abundant neurotransmitter accounting for over 90% of synaptic connections in the human brain. It is involved in key cognitive functions such as learning and memory.
The most common receptor in the nervous system and one of three major glutamate receptors (the others being NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors). They produce extremely rapid responses. Full name: ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor.
Organized nerve cells that are activated by, or contain and release, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine during nerve impulses. The cholinergic system has been associated with several cognitive functions, from memory, selective attention, and emotional processing.
A class of drugs which affect the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Commonly used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
Generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic – attracting both water and fats. It is an excellent emulsifier helping things dissolve.
General term for a loss decline in mental ability. This may include, to varying degrees, memory loss, impaired thinking, reduced problem-solving, and language difficulties.
A cognitive enhancing drug which acts as a AMPA receptor which was researched as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and ADHD. Human trials proved disappointing due to low potency and a short half-life. It is, however, still used as a standard reference for newer drugs.
A cognitive enhancing drug developed after CX-516 with some advancements. It has problems with limited oral bioavailability but may have application as a treatment for schizophrenia.
Rare and severe neurological and developmental disorder with no known cure. It principally affects girls and is usually identified in the first two years. Can result in microcephaly (unusually small head), poor language acquisition, impaired muscular coordination, and difficulty breathing.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
A protein coded by the BDNF gene which aids in the survival, development, and function of neurons. It is found in the brain and peripheral nervous system and is important for long-term memory.
A chronic neurodegenerative disease causes 60-70% of dementia cases. Symptoms include language difficulty, disorientation, mood swings, loss of motivation, and other behavioural issues. The principle symptom is short-term memory loss.
Abnormal aggregates of protein which develop inside nerve cells. Most commonly associated with Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia, and Pick’s disease.
Drugs or other supplements which enhance cognitive function, especially executive functions and memory. The term was coined in 1972 from the Greek words ???? (nous), or "mind", and ??????? (trepein), meaning to bend or turn.
A class of drugs sharing a pyrrolidine nucleus. There are three major classes: nootropics, stimulants, and anticonvulsants.
An experimental drug with antiamnesic effects in animal testing. It has not been subjected to toxicology testing or human trials and has not been approved for human use.
An experimental drug with antiamnesic effects in animal testing. It is not patented and has not been subjected to toxicology testing or human trials. Studies have shown it to be stronger than Piracetam. It is commonly sold online.
A nootropic drug available in Europe, Asia, and South America (but not the United States). It has seen varying results for treating dementia, anxiety, and depression: generally helping but occasionally exacerbating symptoms.
An analog of Piracetam it was developed in 1983 to help Soviet cosmonauts cope with the stress of working in space. It has shown antidepressant, anticonvulsant, and memory enhancing effects.
A racetam sold in Europe but not approved for use in the United States. Trials have shown it to positively modulate the AMPA receptor.
A nootropic racetam which also acts as a mild stimulant. Several studies suggest it is safe, however, it has not proven successful in treating dementia. It is not approved for sale in the United States.
Used in the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders as it enhances blood flow in the brain and has neuroprotective properties. This is often associated with age related memory impairment. It has not been approved for therapeutic use in the United States.
A class of drugs that promote wakefulness and alertness. Used in the treatment of sleeping disorders such as narcolepsy.
Used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer’s: it improves cognition and behaviour but does not slow the progression of the disease. It acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor increasing acetylcholine concentrations at synapses.
Used in treating mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and other memory impairments, particularly those of vascular origin. It is a naturally occurring alkaloid found in several plants. It is commonly synthesized.
Used in treating mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and dementia related to Parkinson’s disease. Due to severe side effects, the drug associated with oral consumption, it is often administered via a transdermal patch.
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